Mitosis In Plant Cell and Animal Cell- Differences and Similarities

Difference and Similarities between Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cell in Details 

Mitosis is a type of Cell Division that results in the formation of two identical daughter cells from a Single Parent Cell.

This process occurs in both plant and animal cells, although there are some slight Differences and Similarities in the way it takes place.

Difference between Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cell in Details 

DIfference between Mitosis in plants and animals with respect to different factors in details are as follows – 

Location

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • In plant cells, mitosis occurs in the cell plate, which is located in the middle of the cell.
  • Cell  Plate forms at the center of the cell during Cell division. 
  • The cell plate is responsible for dividing the cell into two daughter cells, and it is located in the middle of the cell, between the nucleus and the cell membrane.
  • This is known as interphase mitosis, and it is unique to plant cells.

Animal Cell Mitosis 

  • Animal cells do not have a cell plate and do not undergo interphase mitosis. 
  • Animal cells undergo mitosis in the nucleus, where the chromosomes are located. 
  • The chromosomes are lined up in the center of the cell, and then the cell splits in two, forming two daughter cells. 

Also Check – Cell Organelles – The Complete Guide

Organization of Chromosomes

  • There is an important difference in  mitosis in plant and animal cells is the way in which the chromosomes are organized during the process.
  •  In plant cells, the chromosomes are lined up in the middle of the cell, known as the equator. 
  • In animal cells, the chromosomes are located at the center of the cell, known as the metaphase plate.

Difference in Organization of chromosome in each phases of mitosis in plant cell and animal cell is as follows – 

Phase Plant cell Mitosis Animal Cell Mitosis 
Prophase The Aster forms and the chromosomes condense and become visible. The microtubules of the aster then begin to interact with the chromosomes, pulling them towards the equator of the cell. This process is known as spindle formation. In Animal cells, the microtubules form a spindle from the centrosomes, but the Aster is not present.
Metaphase The chromosomes are lined up at the equator in plant cells, and the microtubules of the aster attached to the kinetochores (structures on the chromosomes) and begin to pull the chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell.In animal cells, the chromosomes are lined up at the metaphase plate, and the microtubules attach to the kinetochores and begin to pull the chromosomes towards opposite poles of the cell.
Anaphase The chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite poles.The Aster continues to play a role in this process by helping to organize the movement of the chromosomes.The chromosomes separate and are pulled to opposite poles.The microtubules alone are responsible for organizing the movement of the chromosomes.
Difference in Organization of chromosome in each phases of mitosis in plant cell and animal cell

Also Check – 7 Important Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Centriole

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • Do not have Centrioles. Instead, they have a structure called the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) that plays a similar role in mitosis. 
  • The microtubule organizing center (MTOC) is located near the nucleus and is responsible for organizing the microtubules that form the mitotic spindle. 
  • Unlike centrioles, the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) does not move to opposite poles of the cell during mitosis. It remains in the same location, and the microtubules extend outwards to form the mitotic spindle.

Animal Cell Mitosis 

  • Centrioles are structures found in animal cells that play a crucial role in mitosis. 
  • They are composed of microtubules and are located near the nucleus. 
  • During mitosis, the centrioles move to opposite poles of the cell, and then microtubules from each centriole extend towards the center of the cell to form the mitotic spindle. 
  • The mitotic spindle is responsible for pulling the chromosomes apart and ensuring that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes.

Cytokinesis

Difference and Similarities between Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cell in Details  - Cytokinesis
Cytokinesis in plant and animal cell

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • Plant cells use a different mechanism for cytokinesis known as cell plate formation. 
  • During this process, a cell plate  is formed at the equator of the cell, which eventually develops into a cell wall. 
  • This cell wall then acts as a barrier between the two daughter cells, separating them and forming two distinct cells.

Animal Cell Mitosis 

  • In animal cells, cytokinesis is achieved through the formation of a contractile ring of microfilaments around the equator of the cell.
  • This ring contracts, pulling the cell membrane inward and creating a cleavage furrow that divides the cell into two daughter cells. This process is known as cleavage furrow formation.

Centre of Division

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • In plant cell Mitosis , the center of division is the cell plate, also known as the cell plate or equatorial plate. 
  • This is a structure that forms at the midpoint of the cell during interphase, and it is where the cell’s chromosomes align and begin to divide. 
  • The cell plate is then moved to the middle of the cell, where it forms a new cell wall between the two daughter cells. 

Animal Cell Mitosis 

  • Animal cells Mitosis do not have a cell plate. 
  • The center of division in animal cells is the centrosome, which is a small organelle located near the nucleus. 
  • The centrosome contains two centrioles, which are cylindrical structures that help to organize the microtubules that pull the chromosomes apart during mitosis. 
  • As the chromosomes separate, the cell’s cytoplasm also divides, creating two identical daughter cells.

Also Check – Mitosis and Meiosis

Hormones 

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • In plant cells mitosis is controlled by the hormone Cytokinin. 
  • This hormone promotes cell division and growth by stimulating the production of new cells in the Meristematic Regions of the plant, such as the root and shoot tips. 
  • Cytokinin also regulates the balance between cell division and cell differentiation ensuring that cells are produced in the right numbers and in the right locations.

Animal Cell Mitosis 

  • Animal cells do not have hormones to control mitosis. 
  • The process is controlled by a variety of different proteins and enzymes that regulate the activity of the cell cycle. 
  • These include cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), which control the progression of the cell cycle, and checkpoint kinases, which monitor the integrity of the DNA and ensure that the cell is ready to divide.

Cytoskeleton 

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • Plant cells do not have centrosomes, and instead rely on a microtubule-based cytoskeleton known as the Spindle Apparatus. 
  • This apparatus is formed by the interactions between microtubules and other cytoskeletal elements, such as actin filaments and intermediate filaments, which help to organize the chromosomes during cell division.

Animal Cell Mitosis 

  • In animal cells, the cytoskeleton helps to organize the chromosomes and pull them apart during mitosis. 
  • Microtubules from the centrosomes, which are one type of cytoskeletal filament, form the spindle apparatus, a structure that helps to align and separate the chromosomes.

Also Check – 12 Important Significance of Mitosis

Shape 

Plant cell Mitosis 

  • In plant cells, the cell membrane and cell wall remain intact during mitosis, so the shape of the cell does not change. 
  • In plant cells  the cell plate forms during the early stages of mitosis and eventually becomes the cell wall.

Animal Cell Mitosis  

  • In animal cells,The animal cells become rounded before cell division.
  • The cell membrane invaginates around the chromosomes and forms a cleavage furrow, which eventually divides the cell into two daughter cells. 

Also Check – Is Meiosis part of the Cell Cycle?

Similarities between Mitosis in Plant and Animal Cell

  1. Chromosome replication

Both plant and animal cells replicate their chromosomes during mitosis, resulting in the formation of identical copies of the genetic material.

  1. Nuclear division

 Mitosis involves the division of the nucleus, resulting in the formation of two identical nuclei in each daughter cell.

  1. Spindle apparatus formation

During mitosis, both plant and animal cells form a spindle apparatus, composed of microtubules, which is responsible for pulling the chromosomes apart during cell division.

  1. Centrosomes

Both plant and animal cells have centrosomes, which are responsible for organizing the microtubules that form the spindle apparatus.

  1. Chromosome alignment

During mitosis, the chromosomes align at the center of the cell in both plant and animal cells, in preparation for the separation of the identical copies.

  1. Distribution of Chromosomes

In anaphase, the chromosomes are pulled apart and move to opposite poles of the cell. In both plant and animal cells, the sister chromatids separate and are distributed to the daughter cells.

  1. Decondensation of Chromosomes

Telophase marks the end of mitosis. In both plant and animal cells, the chromosomes decondense, the nuclear envelope reforms, and the cell begins to divide.

  1. Cytokinesis

The final stage of mitosis is the physical division of the cell, known as cytokinesis. In both plant and animal cells, this is achieved through the formation of a cell plate or cleavage furrow, respectively.

Also Check – 5 Important Significance of Meiosis

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