The Transport System in Human Beings
The Transport System in humans is also known as the Circulatory System. It is responsible for the Transportation of necessary nutrients and minerals throughout the body while also transporting metabolic waste products away from the body.
Components of the Transport System
The Heart is a muscular organ that plays a critical role in the Circulatory System of the human body. It is a hollow, cone-shaped organ located in the chest cavity. Heart is behind the sternum and between the lungs. The Heart is divided into four chambers, with the left and right sides separated by a muscular wall called the septum. The upper two chambers of the Heart are the left and right Atria and the lower two chambers are the left and right Ventricles.
Functions of the Heart
The Heart’s primary function is to circulate Blood throughout the body. It accomplishes this by pumping Blood through the Blood Vessels to various parts of the body. The Heart’s left side receives oxygenated Blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body’s tissues through the systemic circulation. The right side of the Heart receives deoxygenated Blood from the body’s tissues and pumps it to the lungs through the pulmonary circulation. The Heart also regulates Blood pressure and ensures that Blood is circulated through the body at an optimal rate.
Components of the Heart
The Heart is composed of several Components that work together to ensure that Blood is effectively circulated through the body. These Components include-
The Atria are the two upper chambers of the Heart that receive Blood from the body and lungs. The right atrium receives deoxygenated Blood from the body, while the left atrium receives oxygenated Blood from the lungs.
The Ventricles are the two lower chambers of the Heart that pump Blood to the body and lungs. The right Ventricle pumps deoxygenated Blood to the lungs, while the left Ventricle pumps oxygenated Blood to the body.
The Heart has four Valves that ensure that Blood flows in the right direction. The tricuspid Valve and mitral Valve are located between the Atria and Ventricles, while the pulmonary Valve and aortic Valve are located between the Ventricles and the Blood Vessels that carry Blood away from the Heart.
The Heart is connected to a network of Blood Vessels that carry Blood to and from the body’s tissues. The Blood Vessels include Arteries that carry Blood away from the Heart and Veins that carry Blood back to the Heart.
Blood is a specialised bodily fluid that performs a crucial role in transporting nutrients, gases, hormones and waste products throughout the body. It comprises two main Components- Blood plasma and Blood corpuscles. The Blood corpuscles include Red Blood cells (RBC), White Blood Cells (WBC)and Platelets. The primary function of Blood is to transport oxygen and nutrients to the body’s tissues and organs and remove waste products and carbon dioxide from them.
Functions of Blood
- Transportation of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat and wastes throughout the body.
- Regulation of body temperature, pH and water balance.
- Defence against infections and diseases.
Blood Vessels are the network of tubes that carry Blood throughout the body. There are three types of Blood Vessels- Arteries, Capillaries and Veins.
Arteries are Blood Vessels that carry oxygenated Blood away from the Heart to the Capillaries. They have thick, muscular walls that allow them to withstand high Blood pressure.
Functions of Arteries
- Carry oxygenated Blood away from the Heart to the Capillaries.
- Regulate Blood pressure and flow.
Capillaries are small, thin-walled vessels that connect Arteries and Veins. They facilitate the exchange of materials with the tissues, allowing for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the body’s cells and the removal of carbon dioxide and waste products.
Functions of Capillaries
- Facilitate the exchange of materials with the tissues.
- Regulate Blood flow and pressure.
Veins return deoxygenated Blood from the Capillaries to the Heart. They have thinner walls than Arteries and rely on one-way Valves to prevent the backflow of Blood.
Functions of Veins
- Return deoxygenated Blood from the Capillaries to the Heart.
- Regulate Blood pressure and flow.
The Lymphatic System is a network of tissues, vessels and organs that work together to move lymph across the body. Lymph is a clear fluid that contains white Blood cells called lymphocytes. The Lymphatic System’s main functions include defending the body against microorganisms that cause disease (pathogens), preserving bodily fluid balance, absorbing lipids from the digestive tract and eliminating cellular waste.
Functions of the Lymphatic System
- Defend the body against microorganisms that cause disease (pathogens)
- Preserve bodily fluid balance
- Absorb lipids from the digestive tract
- Eliminate cellular waste