The human body is made up of trillions of cells that require a constant supply of nutrients and Oxygen, as well as a way to get rid of waste products. The Transport System in the human body is responsible for delivering these essential substances to cells and removing waste products and without it, the body would not be able to function properly.
Table of Contents
Components of the Transport System in Human Beings
The Transport System is made up of several components. The main Components are –
The Heart is a muscular organ that pumps Blood throughout the body, Blood Vessels – Arteries, Veins and Capillaries transport the Blood to different parts of the body. Blood is the fluid that is transported throughout the body, carrying Oxygen and nutrients to cells and removing waste products. The Lymphatic system is a separate Transport System that is responsible for removing excess fluids and waste products from tissues, as well as transporting immune cells throughout the body.
The Heart is a muscular organ that is located in the chest, slightly to the left of the sternum. It is the central organ of the Transport System, responsible for pumping Blood throughout the body.
The Heart is roughly the size of a closed fist and is divided into four chambers
- The Right Atrium
- The Right Ventricle
- The Left Atrium
- The Left Ventricle
The Atrium are the upper chambers of the Heart while the ventricles are the lower chambers.
The Right Atrium receives Deoxygenated Blood from the body and pumps it into The Right Ventricle, which then pumps the Blood to the Lungs to be Oxygenated.
The Heart’s structure also includes four valves –
- The Tricuspid Valve
- The Pulmonary Valve
- The Mitral Valve
- The Aortic Valve
These valves ensure that Blood flows in the right direction through the Heart. The Tricuspid Valve is located between The Right Atrium and right ventricle, while The Pulmonary Valve is located between The Right Ventricle and the Pulmonary Artery. The Mitral Valve is located between the Left Atrium and Left Ventricle, while The Aortic Valve is located between The Left Ventricle and the Aorta.
Functioning of heart
- The Left Atrium receives Oxygenated Blood from the Lungs and pumps it into The Left Ventricle, which then pumps the Blood out to the rest of the body.
- The Heart’s function is to pump Blood throughout the body, delivering Oxygen and nutrients to cells and removing waste products. The Heart accomplishes this by contracting and relaxing in a coordinated manner, which creates pressure that forces Blood through the Blood Vessels.
- The Heart’s contractions are regulated by electrical signals that originate in the Sinoatrial Node, a specialised group of cells located in The Right Atrium.
# The Heart beats about 100,000 times per day, pumping roughly 2,000 gallons of Blood throughout the body.
Blood Vessels are tubes that transport Blood throughout the body, connecting the Heart to all of the body’s tissues and organs.
There are three types of Blood Vessels
Arteries are Blood Vessels that carry Oxygenated Blood away from the Heart and towards the body’s tissues and organs.
They have thick, muscular walls that allow them to withstand the high pressure generated by the Heart’s contractions.
The largest Artery in the body is the Aorta which carries Blood away from the Heart and branches into smaller Arteries that supply Blood to different parts of the body.
Veins are Blood Vessels that carry Deoxygenated Blood back to the Heart from the body’s tissues and organs.
They have thinner walls than Arteries and are less muscular.
Veins rely on the contraction of surrounding muscles to help push Blood back towards the Heart and they contain one-way valves that prevent Blood from flowing backwards.
Capillaries are the smallest and most numerous Blood Vessels in the body.
They are thin-walled and connect Arteries to Veins, allowing for the exchange of Oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the Blood and body’s tissues.
Capillaries are so small that red Blood cells must pass through them in a single file.
Functions Of Blood Vessels
The functions of Blood Vessels are to transport Blood throughout the body, deliver Oxygen and nutrients to cells and remove waste products.
Arteries carry Oxygenated Blood to tissues and organs while Veins return Deoxygenated Blood back to the Heart.
Capillaries facilitate the exchange of Oxygen, nutrients and waste products between the Blood and tissues.
The structure of Blood Vessels enables their functions. Arteries have thick, muscular walls that allow them to withstand the high pressure generated by the Heart’s contractions and distribute Blood to different parts of the body.
Veins have thinner walls and contain one-way valves that prevent Blood from flowing backwards. This helps Blood return to the Heart despite the force of gravity.
Capillaries have thin walls that allow for the exchange of substances between the Blood and tissues.
Blood is a fluid that is transported throughout the body by the transport system. Blood plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in the body.
Blood is made up of several components . They are –
Red Blood Cells (RBCs)
- Red Blood Cells (RBCs) also known as Erythrocytes, are the most abundant cells in the blood.
- They are specialised cells that contain a protein called haemoglobin. It binds to oxygen and helps transport it throughout the body.
- Red blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and have a lifespan of around 120 days.
White Blood Cells (WBC’s)
- White Blood Cells (WBC’s) also known as leukocytes, are cells that help the body fight infections and diseases.
- They are produced in the bone marrow and lymphatic system .
- There are several types of White Blood Cells like Lymphocytes, neutrophils and monocytes.
- Each type of white Blood cell has a specific function in fighting infection.
- Platelets, also known as thrombocytes, are small, colourless cell fragments that help in the process of blood clotting.
- When a blood vessel is injured platelets are activated and stick to the site of injury, forming a clot that stops bleeding.
- Plasma is the liquid component of blood, accounting for about 55% of blood volume.
- It is a complex mixture of water, salts, proteins and other substances.
- Plasma carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body and plays a role in maintaining blood pressure and pH balance.
Functions of each Component of Blood
The functions of each component of Blood are as follows-
- Red blood cells transport oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and carry carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs where it is exhaled.
- White blood cells help the body fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying pathogens and abnormal cells.
- Platelets help in the process of blood clotting, which is essential for preventing excessive bleeding after injury.
- Plasma carries nutrients, hormones and waste products throughout the body and helps maintain blood pressure and pH balance.
The Lymphatic System
The Lymphatic system is a separate Transport System from the Blood circulatory system that works in conjunction with it to maintain fluid balance and fight infections.
The Lymphatic system consists of
- Lymphatic Vessels
- Lymph Nodes
- Lymphoid organs
The fluid carried by the Lymphatic system is called Lymph. Lymph is similar to plasma with less proteins.
The Lymphatic system returns Lymph to the Blood.It carries digested and absorbed fat from the intestine and drains the excess fluid from the extracellular spaces back into the Blood.
Lymphatic Vessels are thin-walled Vessels that carry Lymph, a clear fluid that contains white Blood cells and waste products, away from body tissues and towards the Heart.
The Lymphatic Vessels also act as a drainage system that collects excess fluid and waste products from the tissues and returns them to the Bloodstream via the Lymph Nodes.
Lymph Nodes are small, bean-shaped structures located throughout the body that act as filters for Lymph.
They contain white Blood cells, which help to identify and fight infections and other foreign substances that enter the body.
Lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, thymus and tonsils, are also part of the Lymphatic system. These organs produce and store white Blood cells, which are important for fighting infections and diseases.
- The Lymphatic system has several functions in the body.
- One of its primary functions is the removal of excess fluids and waste products from tissues. Excess fluids and waste products, such as dead cells and bacteria, are carried away by the Lymphatic Vessels and filtered by the Lymph Nodes.
- Another function of the Lymphatic system is the transportation of immune cells throughout the body.
- White Blood cells, which are produced in the Lymphoid organs, are transported via the Lymphatic Vessels to different parts of the body where they can identify and fight infections and diseases.