Table of Contents
Human Brain Diagram
The Brain, a complex organ, controls many important processes in the human body, including thinking, memory, emotions, sensory perception, motor skills and vital functions such as breathing and regulating heart rate. The Brain plays a crucial role in maintaining the overall functions of the body.
The Brain is made up of three main parts –
- The Cerebrum
- The Cerebellum
- The Brain stem
The Cerebrum, which occupies the front part of the Brain, is the largest component. It consists of two hemispheres (left and right) and four lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital lobes). The Cerebrum is responsible for various functions such as:
- Initiation and control of voluntary movements.
- Facilitation of cognitive processes such as thinking, problem solving and learning.
- Regulation of emotions and personality traits.
The outer layer of the Cerebrum, called the cerebral cortex, is made of grey matter and has extensive folding to increase surface area. The cerebral cortex makes up about 50% of the weight of the Brain. Beneath the cerebral cortex lies the white matter, which consists of nerve fibres that make connections between the different regions of the Brain.
The Cerebellum is located at the back of the Brain, below the Cerebrum. It is divided into two hemispheres and has a folded surface. It primarily performs the following functions:
- Coordination and fine-tuning of voluntary movements.
- Maintenance of balance, posture and muscle tone.
- Facilitation of motor learning.
The Cerebellum receives input from sensory systems, the Spinalcord, and other Brain regions, allowing it to adjust motor performance accordingly.
The Brainstem is located at the base of the Brain and provides an important connection to the Spinal cord. It comprises three structures: the Midbrain, the pons and the medulla oblongata. The Brainstem plays a crucial role in the following functions:
- Regulation of basic physiological processes such as breathing, heart rate and blood pressure.
- Control of important activities such as swallowing, digestion and sleep-wake cycle.
- Mediation of reflexes.
In addition, the Brainstem facilitates communication between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum and between the Spinal cord and other Brain regions. It serves as an important pathway for the transmission of information.
Description of the labels in a Brain Diagram
The Forebrain consists of the frontal region of the Brain and includes several important structures –
- Hypothalamus – A small region below the thalamus that is responsible for regulating various bodily functions such as temperature, hunger, thirst and hormone production.
- Pituitary gland – Located just below the hypothalamus, it is often called the “master gland” because it controls the release of hormones that regulate growth, metabolism and other vital processes.
- Cerebrum – The largest part of the Brain responsible for higher-level functions such as thinking, reasoning, perception, memory and voluntary muscle movements.
The Hindbrain is the posterior region of the Brain and consists of the following structures-
- Pons – It is located in the upper part of the Brain stem and serves as a bridge between the different parts of the Brain. The pons is involved in passing messages between the Cerebrum and Cerebellum.
- Medulla- Located at the base of the Brainstem, the medulla controls vital functions such as breathing, heartbeat and blood pressure.
- Cerebellum – Located at the back of the Brain, the Cerebellum is responsible for coordinating and regulating voluntary movements, balance and posture.
The skull (cranium or skull) is the bony structure that surrounds and protects the Brain.
The Spinal cord is a long, thin bundle of nerve fibres that extends from the Brain along the spine. It serves as a transmission pathway for sensory and motor signals between the Brain and the rest of the body.
The Midbrain is a small region located between the Hindbrain and Forebrain. It plays a role in transmitting sensory information, regulating sleep-wake cycles, and coordinating certain visual and auditory reflexes.