Our soil – Class 4

What is soil?

The top covering of the Earth’s surface is called as soil.

How is soil formed?

  • Soil is formed when rocks break down into very small pieces.
  • The pieces further break down into sand and silt.
  • Water, wind ,temperature change etc help in soil formation.
  • It takes thousands of years to form very thin layer of soil.
  • Soil is carried out to different places by running water and wind.

What is soil fertility ?

  • Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to help  in the growth of plant.
  • Manure and fertilizers are added to the soil to increase its fertility.
  • Fertile soil produces more crops.

Types of soil in India

Many types of soils are found in India
They are as follows

Alluvial soil

Alluvial soil
  • Alluvial soil is the most fertile soil.
  • Alluvial soil is formed when river deposits silt along its Bank.
  • Alluvial soil is found in the Northern and the coastal plains.
  • Rice wheat jute and vegetables grow well in this soil.

Black soil

Black soil
  • Black soil is formed from Lava rocks.
  • Black soil is black in colour.
  • It is also called as Black Lava soil.
  • Black soil is found in Maharashtra Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.
  • It holds large amount of water or moisture.
  • Crops like Cotton sugarcane wheat and oil seeds grow in this soil.

Red soil

Red soil
  • This soil is less fertile.
  • This soil is generally found in warm and moist climate.
  • In India it is found in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, Jharkhand and the Northeastern States.
  • The lowermost layer red soil is dark in colour and very fertile.
  • Proper use of fertilizers and irrigation high production of cotton, wheat, rice, millets and pulses.

Laterite soil

Laterite soil
  • Laterite soil is formed when minerals are washed away from the soil due to heavy rainfall.
  • This soil is rich in iron and Aluminium.
  • Laterite soil is found in parts of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala, Telangana, Odisha, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, Assam and Meghalaya.
  • Laterite soil when properly manure can be used to grow tea, coffee,  rubber, coconut and fruits.

Mountain soil

mountain soil
  • Mountain soil is very rich in humus.
  • Mountain soil is found on the hill slopes in Jammu Kashmir, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Tea, coffee, wheat, maize and tropical fruits are grown in such soil.

Desert soil

Desert Soil
  • Desert soil is Sandy and infertile.
  • Desert soil is found in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
  • If water irrigation is available millets, barley, wheat, pulses and cotton can be grown in such soil.

What is soil erosion?

soil erosion
  • Soil erosion is the process in which topsoil is removed by rainwater and wind.
  • Soil loses fertility due to erosion.
  • Soil erosion is harmful for the fertility of soil.

What is soil conservation?

Soil conservation is the process in which we protect the soil and prevent soil erosion.
Following steps should be taken for soil conservation
  • Do not cut the trees
  • Plant more trees
  • Do not keep the field Barren
  • Stop Overgrazing of land
  • Use manure or natural fertilizers instead of artificial fertilizers.

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