Friendly Microorganism or Useful Microorganisms
Microorganisms have lots of benefits not only for us but for the whole nature. We get Various useful substance from microorganism. Different bacteria produces different substances like alcohol, lactic acid, maleic acid, vitamins an enzymes.
Following are some examples of how microorganism benefit us:-
Useful in making of many food products
Microorganisms are used in making curd bread and many food preparations like pickles, Dhokla, idli , cheese, sausages and sauerkraut etc.
Curd is made from the fermentation of the lactose present in the milk by rod shaped bacteria lactobacillus to produce lactic acid. It also acts on milk protein to give curd its texture and acidic test.
Making food like idlis, cheese, pickles, sausages also requires the action of microorganisms to give its characteristics taste and texture.
Making bread: –
Yeast is used in baking industry to make bread .Yeast utilizes the sugar present in the dough and gives out carbon dioxide and a nice flavor. Carbon dioxide gas fill the dough and increase its volume. This makes the bread rise.
Microorganisms are also used for many other purposes such as in the manufacturing of tea and coffee.
Commercial use of microorganisms
Alcohol and Acetic Acid (Vinegar) production
Microorganisms are used in the production of alcohol and acetic acid.
Yeast converts sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide. Sugar present in many substances such as barley, maize, rice, cane juice, great juice is converted by yeast into alcohol. The process of conversion of sugar into alcohol by the action of yeast is called fermentation. Yeast is used in the production of alcohol.
Acetic Acid (Vinegar)
Alcohol is Converted into acetic acid (Vinegar) by Bacteria named Acetobacter.
Uses of microorganism in pharmaceutical industry. | Medicinal Use of Microorganisms
Many microorganisms produces a substance which kills many disease causing microorganisms, the substance is called as antibiotics. Most antibiotics including penicillin ,streptomycin, neomycin, ampicillin, tetracycline, Erythromycin, etc are obtained from specific fungi and bacteria.
Antibiotics are used to treat many diseases in humans especially caused by bacteria and fungi.
Microorganisms are also used to make many vaccines which provides immunity against a particular disease.
These vaccines which are made by using microorganisms contains dead or attenuated( weekend) disease causing microorganisms. When such vaccines are given to healthy person orally or by injection , the body of that person responds by producing antibodies in its blood .
Many diseases can be prevented by vaccination of children at proper age
Microorganisms also produce steroids which can be used in many treatments for human body as well as for the growth of plants.
Production of vitamins.
Microorganisms produces vitamin B12 which can be used for human consumption.
Production of Useful hormone
Microorganisms with the help of genetic engineering produces lots of essential hormones which can be used for human treatment. For example with the help of genetic engineering E coli produces very important hormone insulin.
Plant hormones are also produce by microbes which can be used for the growth of plants.
Production of enzyme by microbes
Microorganisms produces many enzymes which can be used in, agricultural, chemical industry, food processing industry, textile industry, pharmaceuticals, wood processing industry, cosmetics an environmental pollution control.
Important role of Microorganism in environment
Sewage treatment plants
Microorganisms plays important role in the treatment of sewage.
Cleaning the environment
Microorganisms converts dead plants , animals, animal waste into simple substances which not only mix up with soil but makes it more fertile. Microorganisms cleans up the environment by decomposing the harmful and smelly dead remains of animals, daily garbage produced by us, plant waste and animal wastes.
Important role of Microorganism in Agriculture
Increase the fertility of soil.
Microorganisms not only cleans the environment but they produce essential for plants by decomposing the organic waste.Microorganisms present in the soil fix the nitrogen present in the atmosphere. Into nitrogen compound. This nitrogen compound increase the fertility of soil.
For example, Blue green algae, Rhizobium.
Blue green algae fix Nitrogen gas from the atmosphere to enrich the soil with nitrogen compounds and increase its fertility. Rhizobium Bacteria present in the root nodules of leguminous plant also fix atmospheric nitrogen and increase the fertility of the soil.
Used as Insecticides
Microbial insecticides consist of microorganisms or the toxins produced by these organisms.
Compared to the commonly used chemical insecticides or pesticides they are safe for both the user and consumer.
Production of organic acids
Organic acid is produced by many fungi like acetobacter, rhizopus, Penicillium.
These fungi ferment fruit sugar containing media into organic acids. For example acetic acid , citric acid ,gluconic acid .